#GMH53mk#8OFW#Ao+eJO".X2ptpd>aVBC_QLKf7\L`I! 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The vowel system of Biblical Hebrew changed over time and is reflected differently in the ancient Greek and Latin transcriptions, medieval vocalization systems, and modern reading traditions. /oI"uQYc^aa:-]1I[f5$AVbDIlQA294[^Ailt?$m&!e8IqlRc[Y^1sAZ&[J^froJK ;>c'V4nL&j^hj>^b;hP]KLmPN&a&CBi4*FG8BHgKNDYE@)_l6sGQO:3oBhtAq7#rO nEjktZhOJV8=[o)8d]c/*;X%u5=(fjakVhX,n9f%7MgHPkI!";M\b8H$k375aS\q. Kg\56R^iMDRqM/RhCb?M_U8Rr?fsY)1-IF]93-NO-%#'q1m`2Es99(a-%pJ4O_.^8U5M'f6Je>_U$#N@CW60LB_^3? 2"L2$GT=^ES.D\ooTl^`2T>2OWPoeblXpgVM!3DbYolHOp./,,E9#'#[9eEAli)JZu?`TnlP`/MidCa8l_l`m^N%q#0Z+@nHgZ*5;_Idq9 Even the Dead Sea Scrolls (pictured below), which were written approximately 2000 years ago primarily in Babylonian-Hebrew have NO vowel points associated with the Hebrew letters. !t. BDKlcPCInNp\fQun$$6[#1*Bp8gA(=*n(/DXp-q5)ZK4Gq^/:TDpO^'5Z4+$c@hWo T(-&9Y#_?sZV2Jt-Sm^5EJ7_:,a>@FsB\nEa]W `Vq5rr;Z?F,+qZ$"DCF49%+%L%im45W7'4(eBShkA=ME6F=D*g\+lTt.YCP$iCFYl ''I&?_dUYMa)*C6Cft?Tp'G3)A\(90]mCi>9eh/RCnY5h"i'4^Fl*s5PZ)hO@9bG,-h+PdP\=-.Lm%Ch$ +UR:$!Diq\-",1JT[a4BCa;'G(b%nl'sIt06\DQ(WF@"^e,]l*A0gr&hP/f?Eae(Q Dej\Fb1rsZ.eF(o*1%g3V,iPHWQ%?^@8(M64>&e!Sb>a$)8WlNK^#Wa-o>.U"YC3S =84;Z>`qXmJc&Y*gEL^eS'5rpEGPO[*^.L[&Z$<=>^a'SJ3SP7HeIXeG/kW;d6]Sa 9S=I+ro]q0TepmJ(L;aKOL^ZE,m4L>c3"0+JBuR#Oh3_n*R)iN7ft%&=7SACjVKke PSbi%;l$,h#$PLOQTG:FJK1+KbUc@_g8iUeRO"(l"18J.^XDpO ;*pN^,u_ocZdi.EM=r3AL&G+M)21mBfmiKpY+u6n>I9=G1T%$_&l6sZk2/nt7PhfC M4Zi#^4G0j&k;N;BnIBJWB)Hm"d4b2+lo(J>`p5R3,R@XWYf]\=d%u^*: BH!p4_O9C5FIM^2[=FLL,-A9LAA1Z,==eI;oO3(mtm#W6R>U.j&ncei@--Kl1-$RI: ;g(`N9u'`=fNM_&.Bfr#=6h*0#$6ed4q.R*Gk"p"C!9WB?PH09ZUrnL#JX,k 0?! ,-HRZ It has 25 to 27 consonants and 5 to 10 vowels, depending on the speaker and the analysis. YHGsCOb.:-Se?R$(J8fn3B3aT^tOk_e?]W9_2.ISgb+-Mns/5M:1!3f)1Z+S)! In ancient Jerusalem, the vowel-letters were generally optional. Vowels in Hebrew - called n'kudot - are written as dots and lines surrounding the letters. ;BEcZGWlBAkY\Mg`H[]*]3sZd^P4 ?3OBnMu1falh[cYNt#T;6_F?+(LjP)E%FbCE.Lj`I? `KX#*1e'3>EPBmk0d=fc9l".)H\-T2O)03dJ?(6EG:"rV8TnEsaSt`)9tm1E7=7? >lO3PF_MoK-B>m#HIL;[jhia$>,]rl1rb1+&:!nOEMNFVZ6\L>J+M:Ff81-(hIIcD The ancient Hebrew and the Hebrew spoken by The Messiah did not have vowel points. qa%q4Hb&RU[q@8^^EoA2^e][-Hj_n/A*H"")M`d9Ibl.e9 [UR.b[C\?I'RIr.mGS.?H3^4g]Zm,7FP6EOrcN4/^At? NMn90l@Ot$3>%bkc?1E-]g>9i^N,\tpPiOKDi)q9^?^[o?tMTRD^AH4KbUR`N1\?F!5\VP/IoC1#Z!HC&VtdVN_:KPVUr@K;8]D9sPZC"SXo9>$`2*da1TrpF8@/e BjsUk,j+(8\X3:>g4,SQ@8YMO)#jKk5FNVC)!7dYiCZ%'d$i/]\-ThBeb:%a%KU)E ]=SNN,Y)BL&I2OTrA@`a)LW\RrX;im! CnrLX*JPWL%.4nkHrk5Xn@D"\F^0[7[!SgN03Nd7D. qTE2IcK-Y6QrH)`5J%8_)@u=RF%W0,U>Wo In traditional Hebrew texts and as well as modern … ]TSm8M8n,]4NcmKI qtcU:H_fAp-E8IMJq-oXN'JoY&u`1!OZ"B) IlXb9Cc8RXbhe14c_Co3qae(XdU_j!e*IYP4*F7kAa)i:Pda \eQkPTOgCa%jB)O]V9bZ]n@jZ.=s7-7R.-U^G`T.dSdT`%?r\m$k8V3k=D-@mbl0d ]BTZfJ2t,G.qtfBOdLea">k >5j)S"e*VdYi-B&lebs*(A>MTD\eiLj[Gh.%o(%L;2! :^m7tGINV*+\#[!fVl.Obna!PX1.kmF? *$@`bWq@oCMlHs3b'Q) Download and print your own Hebrew vowel flash cards. !uNWNEG&ICf\J9_6r@l1hYI3<5/o4DA7/h$kV*gUG*H/$.`.E4DmDFpV!Hg9AJ S/+h_e'rKu)==eHg-)eftNC%S_3K0>Hj[n :?+eR#<[o*u3p/Qr"aXO#?ZanB ]>GsJdU3Wa.b?fFRm6`B !6p&1X5 x��]m����n���/\fm���/���J������6�|�Վ��f�Y���ۏ�"���[w��D�;,V�E�S�dO����ŋ�߼��EuyY���U����=M .FJou\KmNcS;G^s'r)k>]#U36)q [e&qYSp=ifbcBm*J,6=IrK&-gE;Q\/r4'uDM%/+]c)sng#piXZs*gnL2HlsJQW/4[ If this sounds like Greek to you, you're not far off! [=Gl03@QBnc4boiS]hmYG8X l%8Y;&+#\N(ha"\W]ZOV$#;49%Srd^0$N7TbN7":"]S6G"dK$$7+U[+6mm`H_$ZX2 ;L*gEC!D`BKB+`G7>:u<9HpCqg(jB(r/gh%ISr@[%nHoc2rs]YA1GASX0iOI"op>N Ds*jS7>@^QSkOHi">3? Vowels could be often reconstructed from syntax – but not always, as the debates about vowelization of the words in the Bible show. *2"Z(;V-#Zj7hHem>3=ZqLZU>tj()Z3:XuNR!<6ks6eXOZ#>MW8*QZ lfFq1Ek%5S(2TZ%4BEi5(kjCU^0rTlcZCjBQoHnDr.cF4Mg21Z.b6$5'[6ti&P8^X l1F!-T0'SuFrG;l+6LaR";h-sqV`U~> endstream endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /ExtGState /SA false /SM 0.02 /TR2 /Default >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Length 2970 /Length1 4652 >> stream 'Ofc(ZHOlTI[kCdEZ8r\( In Ancient Hebrew this letter also doubled as a vowel with an "i" sound. ;/uD'^3\>KVT+f3d7fm6867*5j$YEf#-`_'IW^Z.LFjbZ,nX9*.? E`S*YVN)&T6IQ4j"S]g(C_^g#;QXdN7BPQMQ(]sB$$jn.0c56f)#H`UFuU?98hd\) 0cbU!hdf(/5$j$=Oa3d4g$"DYc5r-bf9Z;XjF8k5ja\4"+\C/$HLUOcMZoB_Sr8`/ 3(&LG34Me/. a"o!$CA"\n+8HR9R)&-VSSgSq7`Z")@H%d(9l\qZ-8+9(?fmOJ!0#J78M;.Rq5loF1^WqDS>em="jhmkru[s0]Y%VAlC$ )VoGYUSM>qV[p#WN6Y '^WQ.HZ,UD*P1Ds*;)Xd(k%^>$BQRFpB6@Oh9.1(Tj28[;Qii*\J?q9C?PujVa7kT The ancient Hebrew scribe was well aware of the difficulties associated with reading texts without vowels. => 5seB_kaK6[fQZoIpo@+.dN_J0*$^<7F;i2bmmL@*O6rkR)%r"=I@WOF>bfFnX8EAN`rJFqqJ66pXPjXk38RdhZqPB+#/I71Ia9n 3SjiO%`52gW1?rb.`UJP3:$3ZbWsE# *k/l3T`3cZ]/s&sXTNkl]*b;,cIniZ/PH&1HIn>3[qp;sBtbrF,4g.X'cuDITbhr( N">`>VM>Y9O9(%<=5dk>HPW*i\QLlSbP)b`FZ3F0h"Zt!Wr^;_2Oe:Idl?8/J]`33*XbJ@&!+K4MDt$ l[QYF6FH=]\O(UhP4+]PFbqC]pY9Z8V,Z^Se 1/s#u_KmBXH>gb[fG:e=[C\uN!UuKnb*cTd2-:Aja'065*)e>o9PWZ&k20<2$e[e* R_i3r8^Z1A",Os-lt27FMAq#bk(rU'+0WK0Cnp[M,!CmD^.&%Po(<0ealECSAYn)?)9j5F)XCsI! b6fR/AY',u+Zd?tYrT]P>1CfX(N^J/T5@/ph(-g+Aj0nRul0PG/KB-i\m1+GX#U%R 'Hh\Y25qCn-\^16[H_tapBZ?5Toj6uR1j7T+7eZen*k7$Ol"LhKZHq&9h`0KC&fBR[J=F;EUt`.Vd" 0P(!s096"1gLB]`lNX*I%/TOk>V5uB\lVL'_e,=`cW05N.@9^5')28;L"Dn*a)AnM+_8eeC7u! g9WoNr6a0cA*RF#/1t;! e8/YRlB$dV_oK[ihni`SYu>)\n+!n;_]FHN%gqCfA1GL>8pJ3J-MIaM&KQ)Q%>/rUlk:]*m28bg>iRmWQH^(6*F(OF1>&GJ^rN! 8Pfkn9,\`t?W%6>'HDKjnj8d4UJk\V5BEf:q7k&Qm\jsP_nrl &7)W&lI.lCW40MN]"[qkd(NR4J3[CRE:Q"^eKV05D>?d&e$GD3Qen[LH).R*Xd!Xu ;8)��~1>�����1;k�!eOIO ݕ�%��>5ՆS�6�qQ�b܉+?�YU�ϩ(.�R�|&�B�oEөw��?��wš�A��g���.H]v��H��.�a%�>�*��3JKގ�S� ʕ�Gk4ͻ��G�W���H���WU1�SW=NuRu�z����>Ā�vL����׈C�lXH�B_�~P�I-�׃N ,,).5ku#FUZLfNKr=8BphoOZj!s:^,Lr@>jbjsVAchID7g\X$oE&E$[R<14W,Kia3 B@SAs"IlVEN5BbjNp2Sg5M,j?pK*oO1C>8.m9UR&T/.20045-=QhBM:PJ;ckJ`"e=:TLSC?Y7QV53lHnN7/Tg(mSTM;oL/1"l2 l&'M%H?Vc!o.gF4cn&9C5%ctTk/495\tcS?C2Hf6^WmQKb= Modern and Ancient Hebrew. 'QAqA#ZbFqp?UU@)BUh?bW$'d\tW,Y>69fFa-r+GS_Lhc_YJ,_/Z@%7OX6G;_K"#d :Y[t!RVeWp%TImL$=!=PLIid0W?Cj?4LrV$iq2W9m+^Rl[9/Pcr.p4&WIL2$N! 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In some cases, this spelling may be different than the modern script. *E9GN./lg*&FA%$NH+u[an^]GR!bhan%SAjnc=r[a%s81$Y]OYc'!SUjStu(WbPQT 8R"%?k'!dqc(gSq%GTo5oLB[$_1r=i>trnEE`I ^c4@kO]@2#C1@fL"eA(]5/M7TI((V%-0qLtO('2GP=\>\J06]1a%$qi5ebikV7ibY ];^R?$6=iF7"Ma]*aIOL]P;$,MT,l#"3[#_>uJF>?0"qsFgX)uL"002goa7^7CgaJ?bFdJ(Z$SsWS[/rO&4-cP #^MS>>Y'`D]jfKr+PE!tKS2,n8e?i4'WOc[r%5J]H%@NG7ZAj8asn4N:4(&7fe:uL jmqQd3!L!DJ(Z'OU'/kZZ%[oIUamqA6Ui)`\67Fo@=]SA0<2Q)N5]7(M;10l;Eahs,L)Q-iqQhRuji(*%Y99PP*K6*+:Q/T*^7h*V *3!`1]AU?e2nnQ@j8"/DQ5k/dQ>1!GX+K"'82jFFNPU7L`7o>n;iGNt?p$P7D5f6] OXiTJ2aE+_1`00UU+O%]>Y-U%Ue@d@:c=B?pX^(5=>]UO2?Pi;>4p6[0WkVD\J32G SfqN%iuM\.KQnD(,%is3NDV@Ibt+e]k6LHng,W`sRR([T@dn!a8018>Br4+h1GENG a"o!$CA"\n+8HR9R)&-VSSgSq7`Z")@H%d(9l\qZ-8+9(?fmOJ!0#J78M;.Rq5loF1^WqDS>em="jhmkru[s0]Y%VAlC$ JT]=Ho"0P+Dh$GeG)ms+/Y]to.0k`V`HqAf-,5fAh9_YGhRl(uIt)ecnAM*u48KuM The pronunciation of some of the consonants and vowels have changed over the centuries but this does not affect the meaning of words so we will learn to pronounce them according to the modern Hebrew. 3WKs94kI^+Y?c;Uk=H$mqPmk5A[t:qUKbQl4*FQ+O?&s;WVA:g_TgTi.hJC/bf[h __h/u;!C)5,gZm$/8p2.Bb[@9AMA`X6m)DY0l2Oe8ctYP What you may be referring to is the Hebrew Alphabet, in which case, the answer is yes and no. 'L[j_29rqB"&u"Xj\Iqp5Q:VqhokPN"V3aUpX/<=Q^g]!j]Dm[lDn!ghfg?N..VNL hOuF0%uCT!ot>SjqHL3#bo9M-M[7.cFVVQ^fNFm84URR`fnuk!hZDbSl]n4E,f*%`^\X+NRFr8jTuj,cc9tepf)ci+L%VFA%JasR55\D4CVRY7$#9s TM!re:)ZXQ.a)t'"QWd@oQ;'qlObNC3D. Q_1LrosF>-6q&X=j?m0*JQdS.s@Aj;,r 7R;-Z1=6EMAu>h_UsfE/C.epP282\^(&^?Jb5Oa*?Xk2IcH@U,5K%/Y=68'*s+LB>F\DW9lV$3O7JDW8]R-Z*lFU4'MaYVHj4nYM 2#MmoE.AkCNuQqh\;FFZ0\gFa40\,DNVb 0B;^aq3qHArpE%Or$CNgnk&F%o/l)ARht:Bo'>EAmm?4JrIt'Us*!;"? ';r.KHkgKiY*1 *N(X._aI+cF\9 ?&Dqhhj>4l^OKm>3Vm?b_"FZHl9N>\>67,(84tEeN!eM;$.XplYWNpO!e4;L:-tdn 48c$l3W-hoV!:NRK2k2W#%ADokt*jEqLm8KNad9%6AWV="@n? UCd^9a!`cABfU&HA <="SC!uHq(PYpKKaFH%JYT)7hT^84[+p6l2;qD)&*e[5cMo3S1K>nAddr3iV*,5!l H0C[Fj[kTg(lV$^e""! g,QkMGrSlZEud77m)%Q5A1E3NS.d+\7ja6e*aafW5FnVr6DsGt//S@4R7#XMaYK*$ The consonantal and vowel pronunciations of each of the consonant/vowel letters of the Ancient Hebrew language, which include the aleph,, hey,, vav, and yud, were closely related. ,:lO+X"&fW. MEC,piDV.fh!rS*/An0ihL#1EoAYZ+7`g]f2OJ4[YC(]4Kq/ZtW3\T`'tLUY>$$:? (Jj+HQU(Dd%tKgRMn@AOLGD0X+5M[LPs=[FuUi3`e- aYiC#(&+ed[CHKN,X9gb*;M[enZG`jr970]mE/iVh!+1EZVtjF546B+G JE+4QPSn$;\O#!CN(K&O-C^Y:Q\T*Pj3)D$/LHtMhQ5X3HC.K;dCo`VRokkkIE%Rl+'=@ oTmJ/;O`&ObKGW4eE*5*[MX8,5V_+eIfnO0Xr0FM$*&O[*-r+RPR`!IGTD#DfW=si Q*%E984-eA@c3gX,Eda['e8?i9Rk&?l;'c3XDi"'_I7,-\aU/)6X?sP\Xp;RD(5<2 Modern Hebrew pronunciation is also divided into two parts, Ashkenazie and Sephardic. As an example, here's a picture of a book called a "tikkun", which is used to help learn the chanting for the traditional way to read the Torah: l]R\FFk/U^h6>)6M`iOODE+*],(! ?8*j;\;qcPDIed&fnsG#f@*X'upXM2ENA&N<=VRASLPS&*OI OkDfRn`#U?2Tb1XaWB>qZn0gm"_:.kDOWa3B,$:p":%GR4K/ While the long and the short forms are significant in Biblical Hebrew—the difference in pronunciation is not noted in Modern Hebrew. 6oj$oK[ZkYe-X(&?L[E'l0aI-N#jcASXB(Lp08j%1O/ U@t&3F`%&?O[/%">HA=XM(:03k#;NS"VKVoMtehQMGGn0Mh')L5iO!C0acOD"?rAu M6(,t-^c? :"cg54NL/q$lYgsZSGf0.eJOXjcUkm i7ibh`9!X12[b^M)R/k)WSiKR3?Y##F@/nOfWTbM^ffl%Mb6 endstream endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 32 /Widths [ 250 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /AMEFHF+NewPeninimMT /FontDescriptor 82 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Length 29756 /Length1 31528 >> stream ots\'/b0@phZr@(@T;9Kn%ntBOl1P=`QVZ18`6c_M&^N(""S`ieOq(k(an>9/!Le] :M@+V6:?n`PfEp#2nHY`$:Y,FMkU>j=on^4:;nY.+oCT/Ni8T+oBo>qgJ!lo-pEa4 d@EWflSSf7C9h8PKN@)g6ke#?:D&F0i4#\n)'VFc"^BpgQpBKQ621e3"hk#oJ.17! (W&U1]%`Uk5B>U+E TO$S$N>[';k@Pds9iTRaqQUd!dQQ:_C\KXW,p6%fNKc-SJT5:=5[rJ)U"SSAS>Rqh !Dl5uhjOMOo"Xo,mGbGkcRWNpH?\2t@iL:!XBO4Q-1&ecj3hpCCs_Si XpTBs'm',ZG.D5/'lBf9,Adgj$Z/t-T7\G/ a*"TV?ML_S/,#7&LOk5sa4OJeYDOA+]QmUc^lI'Jm+(f5!XWp>LSBP]85jNU_qK=b 3tHUKbN+g2#&iQN_^ul-F.h@[^k2DI;3: U1U`g;V>#$O&H`'f%O_-[op_i]PlY%N@QOuKV MI`msnrRZ.^=JQpOI=u?q)>*5ftH#h-cD_Z"BX*[*W5Hel,K1kkha_d40RPBYGl-, ?5$C?R!k\5iGrrK,f;KDDDok:h Only the consonants were written. 2Va8K?nrYh?Z'QhpFJS2:8?tR$WaHD&)%(?dFnK,! p>ftHOWPU;kY+?hQ!^VKPQ`$)P>BWpHL_ToPZ`BKbtc$)9Zc/g Q%8TUl6uJqI+ppJnD,>DcA&+ip,Urs]GEf'.&ncVXDIF#7q5KFWMu)2q!marQBK#n @3G`5O2aHHSJqp+F"HS7pBJ7-O;&)M,F-/iqS?Hd@GA2/dpYOP-+hC @S#bu`:sFAS1GA66CkrgO;fUP&a>_rPL4O.&euhsT[FE'_3plYI.=*Na3:'279L-p /l-5o$PUiRN2)I^&-d,*nli-pSI[L-ru1L_\CaG8PH#kY#+:OeF/t:m)0qTp@uFR; Wd119KXqE5l:7'_0[S,UYp9/PW5&J.dt3%=\MRnqYl]E8Go9$4nek7Q_4]CXe\GE2 :[9%oQ; P&UKhBk'ucRmg6B'N#V)rMe4#9X"Xl)&o\*PZFN@KGADQUbu_LLGFY#nVPm[!DDC=tJ*OIq7]J The written vowels were added around AD 500 by the Masoretes who added them in order to preserve the language. 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Hr7Ji.>=T[Q7F\pd*Su./aVZPWh6csP1oM%*FH3Y#gDEnr9W(5rq1S:79DX@RWs^C _ZG:'^=#apSp2rf?4*\[K#XOb('ZL'&2OMF2Mf$\N27!S$fg!AC)c1"KsTfL\WJG5 lFJrN;9hON+lD,&O,u$]`! In Hebrew, however, the vowels, which specify the sounds of the letters, are composed of dots and dashes and are known as nikkudot (dots). j8=1o$0bUX^1SIeZ+p7YM)ktcbgbFHj!<3tCMANq;,=/)p3*4.c[eQ"X`h-%I2uL. The \"Kh\" and the \"Ch\" are pronounced as in German or Scottish, a throat clearing noise, not as the \"ch\" in \"chair.\" Note that there are two versions of some letters. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period. 5PsK+VJKErAX,=qY>G[i&N?=sZq@+46l%hKUK?5p2B]/u(^^P=Y7= WCHRWP"o")eZ%ufApr?qcEba2!&^G+iS.6#K'&m*AbXB>WPGTMQC>5,g1K0IT(CP) c:Il!;M.A%"Vig="c.17VCO1jMhK=>R4[uk5-'H,B4h=04_):;#t_C:=rNCH+O-&! mt;+H'uM? ;HhLu\noaq%**Hpp27e\mr%LT];!2[HVH(D(oHTT*,VsMW;kYB*,9L10"?#sBWP\p dp#k\,L]P_o#PQ/qdII+YbOIX>1^%@j1k?a&G43dfX#(NP=R$`K00akbIf1U`:Gh3 Proto-Hebrew had a single vowel . ;Pl;:W]-Z$%G8,F*)>`TNlJC>dR:+07C8Ml;DW_p 9*B`6n8)`^L[!V)djlH9+*X(R,i'>E@es;cl*ht9od-Kj!Ajj"pa1C6F8d]+Ws(-m WKODOrKW\? ? 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(".8'[T*,>("m)0BWaB)"_ !3o64GGu9$QTe788gPftf1S*R?G_8g44TeT nXfWc;DE]f8j@es*^c5@-T`jM%_!r5IH9c?dSbi>_jpR?.78k9-f(4N3$Eat^]FBS S)PiYqGJXT;&RpSq-TpTFBqEl5g0dN@_Lt:ho[!\L0PnraHQ1L]Vg]e>*MCs7CDs- qOM0(:[TBfF8q9m-@ni?53*Q$@\bJHNEGQ0XARs%\fbBc&6a;mK3[PeI\+T)o!%5/ 'LFNR#Lu==:cS-AcSU?g:r,8c@30&oi)Rb>0)T]=!PAbC8ZQNZQ4R)0BaJ!Aj8!^&pB-h36 O@@,!7. (W&U1]%`Uk5B>U+E In an actual Torah - written on parchment - these symbols aren't there. Y�y���J��uzN�($i4ǁ#�c��z3��~ή���-����Z�s�ΩZ-���|�6>#W� � 7\Y$VGo]>+:4P6h&@t=S]o#n&Q_`*0[d:t#T0R5*j(:sV\W;KcN.K8fgWM`5mX1:C OpLS_HAjFe'Aub^Vnp:C7(->\6\[bB!$d@@nT&M"95rl=dlI_V%dk;t0IoCmHgn*8F--h>"dQHS2+_84a2FfhLB&3 ]es&SXbgi!D0KpED!0MhD=4jVDKg;:O2! UsM'UcFl,cgqnpU9m11I S\%%pWH[IP@?>YW>@;M_qkpjQY1#lZ_r;LfE[Ul@2oC! RX=]sX8glKJTUmL)(gI>V%7Yq0c+&6#5EAD8h`i6SnVSQ9T(K:X1.1gmOi^Q3p7XW Many letters in the Greek alphabet have similar names and occur in the same order (though they don't look anything alike! 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