How much physical energy is exerted during a concert? Quantitative research questionnaires consist of a series of questions, accompanied by a set of answer choices, which can be assigned a numeric value, making analysis of the questionnaire results easier and faster. In its first part, this paper offers a survey trying to cover the many different aspects of the matter. Our model adaptively learns the sequential-information-included affect-salient features (SII-ASF) from the two-dimensional time-frequency representation (i.e., spectrogram) of music audio signals. We then examine how reliance can be measured by conducting systematic literature reviews of reported success metrics for given technologies. Gay her questions, which she will answer in the podcast. In addition, as the real, experiences are far from those in a laboratory setting [32], con-, ventional ways of studying self-reports of emotional state or, music use are not favorable. sation based on psychoacoustic models [48]. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Therefore, although Person-, ality Recognizer may not be always accurate, it exploits most. Quantitative research is necessary to attain a particular objective. , “Personality, self-estimated intelligence, , “Supervised and traditional term weighting methods for, , “LIBLINEAR: A library for large linear classi. Can music be used to soothe patients in mental wards? There is no "one best way" to structure a quantitative research question. The quantitative research paper aims at collecting data from a particular group of data. I am making a survey. If a quantitative interview contains open-ended questions, however, recording the interview is advised. is a platform for academics to share research papers. the same mood, people can listen to virtually any type of songs. Gay also has her own blog, Star Stryder at, blogging the life of an astronomer. tween music emotion, user mood, and music listening behavior. A Quantitative Study of Teacher Perceptions of Professional Learning Communities' Context, Process, and Content By Dariiel R. Johnson Dissertation Committee Dr. Barbara Strobert Dr. Christopher Tienken Dr. Kelly Cooke Dr. Michael Valenti Submitted in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Education Seton Hall University Sample Questions Speci, 19,427 tracks for training. Quantitative Comparison Questions. We end with several recommendations for practice regarding how to integrate multiple variable importance measures into MR analyses. Quantitative research Quantitative research is expressed in numbers and graphs. How to Do a Quantitative Research Questionnaire. This phenomenon questions how different languages mediate music consumption in specific national contexts. We, ile,’ and ‘sexy.’ We also see decent, for low-arousal ones such as ‘peaceful,’ ‘reverent,’ ‘sad,’, rage AUC attains 0.5449. A trend is observed that information and communication technologies are reconfiguring the traditional balance between the creators and consumers of news and the website and podcast created by Dr. Pamela Gay from the University of Southern Illinois and Frasier Cain, publisher of Universe Today. The blog articles contain 17,849 unique terms. In the first stage of the study, the situation in which the frequency of listening to music was high was extracted by evaluating it. The factorial design focuses on the comparison on the categories of independent variables with the categories of dependent variables, Having tens of millions of musical works available at a listener’s fingertips requires novel recommendation and interaction techniques for music consumption. Quantitative data is easier to measure using statistical analysis, because you can (usually) assign numeric values and directly compare different answers to the same questions. For this … emotion evoked as a result of music listening. In general, past works focus mainly only on either MER [2][3][4] or UMR, ... Yi-Hsuan Yang, et. Moreover, the, music data set is usually small and taken only from the classical, A great amount of effort has been made by computer scien-, of music is subjective and dependent on an interplay between, the musical, personal and situational factors of music listening, creases the perception of sadness in music when the music is not, clearly happy- or sad-sounding. hen performed late fusion by taking the average. Such tendency is in line with the intuition, ational quadratic covariance kernel [62]. The Quantitative Reasoning sections consist of two categories of questions – Questions and Problems, and Graph or Table Comprehension. Tracker. are adequate for people in that particular emotional state. The following patterns can be found (please. Using quantitative questions makes questions clearer, analysis simpler, and data quality better. By using, [22] found that intense pleasure in response to musical stimuli, leads to dopamine release in the striatal system. 4 We hope to demonstrate that different research issues call for different research methods and, as long as they are applied from a critical feminist perspective, quantitative methods, whether Avoid the use of quantitative words such as relate, influence, effect, cause. audio (text) features performs well for audio-based MER (resp. rst prize in ACM Multimedia Grand Challenge. How to use quantitative in a sentence. The guidelines for research questions previously described in this chapter still apply, but there are some new elements to qualitative research questions that are not present in quantitative questions. It appears that few researchers employ other methods to obtain a fuller understanding of what and how independent variables contribute to a regression equation. Proc. Section V-B). Runs of aversive stimuli were interspersed with exposure to the moderately pleasing ones. Its main goal is give the reader an overview of the history and the current state-of-the-art, exploring techniques and datasets used to the date, as well as identifying current challenges, such as this ambiguity of genre definitions or the introduction of human-centric approaches. 1, where we, traits; the user context is determined by factors such as the daily, time and location; the music listening behavior is in, by the user mood and user context, but is also conditioned on, the individual’s music taste and the audio, lyrics, and affective, the music-based model) and user-generated context (i.e., the, context-based model). Rather, it is more l. there is a causal relationship between user mood and blog post. Data on this topic was gathered by e-mail interviews of Asian bloggers as well as by collecting writings and data from relevant, SSRN's download statistics are criticized for being biased in favor of bloggers. The paper pays special attention to new trends in machine learning applied to the music annotation problem. We found it relatively easy to, ‘happy’ mood tag usually describe good events like bir, girl/boyfriends, death, etc. timbre, tonal and lyrics aspects of music [6]–[12]. This way, we can not only identify the, whether the relevant emotion classes are mood-congruent to t, regression (GPR) [62] to compute the likelihood, The result is shown in Fig. prototypical emotions that represent each of the four quadrants. A music based UMR system which uses Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and text analysis has also been described. For example, ‘cheerful’ is positive and hi, tained a total number of 751,121 posts, with on average 22.06, posts per user. What's new. Understanding how, why, and to what ends human beings do what we do is studied by social scientists through a variety of methods generally referred to as "quantitative methods." Research aimed towards sentiment analysis has gained popularity with the increase in computational power and rise of Big Data, but a negligible part of it covers music based User Mood Recognition (UMR); most methods stem from social media analytics and Natural Language Processing. fter removing terms that appear less than ten times, tf-idf) measure [51], which helps enhance the signi, mance of three tf and three idf functions, resulting in nine, , IDF-3 are information-theoretic measures that reduce the, tion of each song over 10, 20, 50, and 100, ame set of text features are generated from blog, on, the validation and test sets do not contain blogs. This is a quickly-compiled draft summarizing and analyzing the results. Question 5 An assignment problem is a special form of transportation problem where all supply and demand values equal a. Reliance is important because researchers can empirically measure the reliability of a given technology. By using the RSS service at the, have used factor analysis techniques to an, rating scales and found the two most impo, valence and arousal [46]. We do not trust technologies like we trust people, rather we rely on them. Design and Analysis of Quantitative Research in Music Education is a comprehensive reference for those involved with research in music education and related fields, providing a foundational understanding of quantitative inquiry methods. A Research Guide to help distinguish between quantitative and qualitative methods of interviewing. In both studies, subjects had to be exposed to 2 min each of the five alternatives, but the order and chunking, in 15-sec intervals, was up to them. Situational, location, time, weather, acoustical conditions, live or recorded), social factors, (e.g., listening alone or with others), an, sidered in this study. Quantitative Research. via the validation set. A.Yes B.No 2.What type of festival are you more likely to visit? Analysis techniques such as Hierarchical clustering, K-means, mapping, ordinary least squares regression and spatial autocorrelation are commonly used methods [67] [68]. order to subjectively evaluate the consistency among articles, mood tags, and music titles. Music genre classification is one of the sub-disciplines of music information retrieval (MIR) with growing popularity among researchers, mainly due to the already open challenges. You can choose the subject area of types of music, history of music, musical instruments, musical writers, or musicians are just a few of the areas you can choose from. However, this task is extremely complex, as various factors influence a user’s music preferences. The obtained difficulty level is then used in tandem with original features to update the model input in a second learning stage with the expectation that the model can learn to focus on high difficulty regions of the learning process. Of course the subject must be narrowed down to something smaller. With qualitative research, you will usually have one central question and possibly also some sub-questions to narrow the phenomenon under study further. 10 Quantitative Questions 1.Do you know what a festival is? Moreover, we kept. For both auditory and visual stimuli, subjects chose the aversive ones early in the session and reserved the most pleasing stimuli for the end. It measures a person’s ability to use mathematical skills in order to solve equations. 1 c. 2 d. 3 . The consumption of music performed in different languages represents a significant aspect of the contemporary cultural experience. be in concert with those reported in psychological studies con-, In the process of our study, we have read some posts in. The podcasts include weekly discussion topics, and mostly weekly “question shows” where listeners are invited to send Dr. I need a qualitative question (asking a type of thing, eg: what religion are you from) I would like the two things to relate to each other, but they don't need to. There are an infinite number of topics that you can write about if you just stop and listen. Quantitative Aptitude-I is a collection of quantitative aptitude questions and problems that help you prepare for Competitive exams as well as for general Math quantitative aptitude knowledge refreshing and evaluation. However, it is not trivial to, in nature, such as ‘okay,’ and 2) for us who are not in the same, context of the blogger, we cannot fully understand the events, and the metaphors used in the post. and Develop. Qualitative research gathers data that is free-form and non-numerical, such as diaries, open-ended questionnaires, interviews and observations that are not coded using a numerical system.On the other hand, quantitative research gathers data that can be coded in a numerical form. Quantitative and Qualitative Research of Music Therapy Interventions with Adult Mental Health Populations: A Descriptive Analysis to Guide Future Research and Clinical Practice. of negative to positive data is around 39. characteristic curve (AUC) [57] and the normalized discounted, cumulative gain (NDCG) [58]. alities prefer different music even when being in the same mood. Don't forget to take a ruler and scientific calculator into the exam. Here you can find all information needed for a good research paper writing. That being said, it is important to note that the musi, a blogger attached to a post is not necessarily a song for the, posting the article. Quantitative Research Methods + UOPX RES750 material. tains 40,000 posts collected from LiveJournal. journalistic reporting profession. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. This article argues for an emphasis on reliance rather than trust as a concept for understanding human relationships with technology. PsySound [48] and MIRtoolbox [49] with default settings. Our study has also identi, partite association among user mood, music emotion, and indi-, vidual’s personality traits similar to those reported in the psy-, Due to the available data and space limitation of the paper, in, this study we have not taken into account individual’s long-term, music preference, social network, time and location of music, have access to an individual’s complete listening history [68]. Empirically Testing the Volokh and Slashdot Effects. In this paper we report on automatic analysis of performances in a mood space spanned by arousal and valence on the 2.6 k songs NTWICM corpus of popular UK chart music in full realism, i. e., by automatic web-based retrieval of lyrics and diverse acoustic features without pre-selection of prototypical cases. For the bag-of-words lyrics features, we, found that the result is more sensitive to the formulation of the, idf term (though not shown here); the entropy measure IDF-2, by the timbre descriptors. GPR, ely’ in Fig. Designed by the Graduate Management Admission Council, this book shows you everything you need to know to go into the exam with confidence. The ground, vocabulary consisting of 190 music emotion tags adopted by the, In addition, we collect another set of 751,121 blog posts from, LiveJournal (without audio information) for inferring the per-, Based on these data sets, we set forth a quantitative study that. Examples of quantitative research include experiments or interviews/questionnaires that used closed questions or rating scales to collect information. about a topic. These questions help collect quantitative data and hence, are extensively used in quantitative research. those derived from psychological studies. “Stumbling on the Heels of My Blog”: Career, Forms of Capital, and Strategies in the (Sub)Field of F... News Blogging in Cross-Cultural Contexts: A Report on the Struggle for Voice, Do Blogs Influence SSRN Downloads? are employed by Personality Recognizer, including the fre-. Retrieval Conf. 84 Quantitative Methods practice questions with detailed answers (PDF files) In this course, Prof. James Forgan, PhD, CFA, summarizes each Quantitative Methods concept so you can learn or review all of the important mathematical formulas and calculation steps from the CFA Level 1 QM chapter. How to Do a Quantitative Research Questionnaire. There are 4 questions in this online quiz. Generally, people listen to mood-congruent music when being, in a positive mood (i.e., the last three pat, to mood-incongruent music when being in a negativ, To sum up, our evaluations identify a number of patterns, between user mood and music emotion. Next, we provide an. GMAT quantitative review, tips, and strategies, with over 300 practice questions. The next step is to generalize the collected data into a wide range of people to describe the process. The experimental results show that our approach outperforms related baselines as well as other well-established time-continuous emotion prediction systems, which suggests that dynamically integrating the difficulty information for neural networks can help enhance the learning process. Considerable efforts have been made to advance the performance of these systems. Process. Limerick, Limerick, Ireland, 2012. blog writing: An online survey of blog authors in Japa, of personality in conversation and text,”, personality and word use among bloggers,”, The structure and personality correlates of music preferenc, and uses of music: A Spanish replication and extension using structural, of felt emotion and individual differences,”, acoustic and psychoacoustic analysis of sound recordings,” in, [49] O. Lartillot and P. Toiviainen, “MIR in matlab (II): a toolbox for, musical feature extraction from audio,” in, [50] F. Sebastiani, “Machine learning in automated text categorization,”, SIGIR Conf. How, nsify their mood, but sometimes to change or alleviate, that emotion is usually understood as a short experience in respon, ect, whereas mood is a longer experience without speci. The concept of Connected Health (CH) has been proposed to achieve that goal by connecting all the stakeholders through enabling Telehealth technologies. Music Mood Classification is frequently turned into 'Music Mood Regression' by using a continuous dimensional model rather than discrete mood classes. 2 displays. Forums. Quantitative Data Examples. 15, NO. Therefore, the music listeni. When I was a kid, my father, a composer, once asked me to define music. Even in, choice. We used MIRtoolbox to extract a large number of, atness represents the ratio between the geometric mean of, We used MIRtoolbox to compute the pitch class pro-, le (or wrapped chromagram; the intensity of 12 semitone pitch, , “Signal processing for music analysis,”. Dr. Specifically, we examine papers which present models for predicting private traits from social media data. His re-. Using quantitative questions helps you get more questions in your survey and more responses out of it. In. The odds are very good that the author is collecting data about this abstract page, as well. This paper firstly reviews the evolution history of EHR and its current status and standards. The fea-, atures have been used extensively in the music, eld [6], [16]. You spent 30% of your HR budget on benefits three years ago, 35% two years ago, and 40% last year. The Building Blocks of Music based User Mood Recognition: A Review, Machine learning for music genre: multifaceted review and experimentation with audioset, EmotionPush: Emotion and Response Time Prediction Towards Human-Like Chatbots, What Clinics Are Expecting From Data Scientists? A graphical model of the musical, personal and situational factors considered in this study. A quantitative research question is usually followed by a hypothesis — this is a prediction of what we think our study will find; a statement that answers the initial speculative research question. see Figs. Fashion Theory The Journal of Dress Body & Culture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a music recommendation playlist constructed by utilizing the emotional characteristics that a music streaming service user wants to feel in a particular music listening situation has effectiveness. 6, OCTOBER 2013, c study that exploits the online repository of social data to, ted in the blog articles, and the content of. They both refer to things that can be counted, even if it seems like it'd take a lifetime to measure. Internet blogs and mobile phones, among other technologies, have made new information and perspectives available concerning local events; they have also added important and often oppositional interpretations of the significance and meaning of those events. In, that case, we can study the relationship between user mood and. This work was supported by a g, editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approvi, The authors are with the Research Center for Information T. tion, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11564, Taiwan (e-mail:; can be argued that every multimedia system that is concerned, with the processing or retrieval of music sho. For quantitative business research it is imperative that the research questions used allow your respondents to answer succinctly. The teenage bloggers are shown to frequently orient to their peers’ Internet language and to norms of orthography, perpetuating many aspects of standard-language ideology and linking them with adolescent concerns. There are so many topics that you can choose from in the field of music. The lyrics of 38,325 tracks can be, the bag-of-words features by counting the occurrence of terms, we obtain a vocabulary of 11,035 terms. In another study, Ladinig and Schellen-, berg [44] found that the personality trait Agreeableness related, in general, whereas both the personality traits Agreeableness, In contrast, little has been done to model the. Home. 2021 MFE Programs Rankings Methodology. By comparing a chromagram with the 24, of the frame in association with each key (e.g., C major) and the, musical mode. Here are some example of quantitative data: A jug of milk holds one gallon. Multidisciplinary research in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) across health science, data science and engineering will be the main challenge in TM. How to structure quantitative research questions. quency counts of 88 word categories (e.g., Friends, Family. In contrast, the user mood is mostly affected, timated from the blog articles than from the music, o 0.6, such as ‘loved’ and ‘pissed-off.’ In contrast, the, How is the association between user mood and, dered MER as a tagging problem and trained audio-based, er for each of the 190 music emotion classes. or context cues in predicting emotional state. two sets contain 100 and 900 records, respectively. The features were comput, ning features were summarized by taking the mean and standard, of difference between the normalized magnitudes of successive, use PsySound to get psychoacoustic features including sharp-, classes) for each frame and took the centroid and peak as two, pitch features [49]. A question of what is Quantitative Research design may appear in mind of each person who is connected to this sphere. In general, quantitative research is divided into 2 groups: 1. It measures a person’s ability to use mathematical skills in order to solve equations. Still need help? What type of music is the most popular for which age groups? is the normalization term that makes the ideal NDCG equal 1. Quantitative survey questions are defined as objective questions used to gain detailed insights from respondents about a survey research topic. First, qualitative research questions often ask about lived experience, personal experience, understanding, meaning, and stories. First, both models outperform the. 8, in which we sorted the user, mood tags according to valence values from left (negative) to, right (positive) and attached the top-ten music emotion classes, positive correlation. (Please circle… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. We have variables here, and the difference between this design and a quasi-experimental one is that random assignment. Dissertations that are based on a quantitative research design attempt to answer at least one quantitative research question.In some cases, these quantitative research questions will be followed by either research hypotheses or null hypotheses.However, this article focuses solely on quantitative research questions. One of the best ways to decide what you may want to write about is to brainstorm. 1 are not con-, sidered in this work for the following reasons. 5 shows that the context-based model consistently, outperforms the audio-based one in almost all classes. mood and music listening behavior by evaluating music-based, UMR on LJ40k. An example might be randomly assigning young plants to a “rock music” group, a “classical music” group, or a control group and then administering the treatment. (‘loved,’ ‘hopeful,’ and ‘cold’). We reveal that future work in TM should put an emphasis on data oriented qualitative analysis, using advanced techniques from the Artificial Intelligence domain to predict health risk, such as heart attacks, early stages of cancers, etc. The Official Guide for the GMAT Quantitative Review 2017 provides targeted preparation for the mathematical portion of the GMAT exam, with 45 brand new practice questions. cation is appropriate. ... Or for the research questions: does music 1 increase immersion? The factors represented by dashed nodes in Fig. These are just a few examples of topics for research papers on music. Al-, Data set available at,; http://developer.7, y review related work in Section II. This paper reports the results of a small empirical study undertaken in April, 2007. There are so many topics that you can choose from in the field of music. with the service provided by Facebook and Spotify together. Available:, linear regression: A guidebook of variable importance,”, and recommendation: State of the art and challenges,”, [67] G. T. Elliott and B. Tomlinson, “Personalsoundtrack: contextaware, Communication Engineering from National Taiwan, he has been with the Academia Sinica Research, where he is an Assistant Research Fellow. We first explore two frameworks of trust and reliance. Based on the, user-IDs, the second data set, LJ750k, is created by searching, for the articles of the bloggers. However, recruiting human annotators or by harvesting from an online, repository of music tags [15]. However, to the best of our, knowledge, no existing work has used data from Live, investigate the tripartite relationship between music emoti, The present study can be conceptualized by Fig. ). Does music use more emotional or physical energy during a concert? the affective content of the selected music title (music emotion)? We show that real-life music listening experiences are far from the homogeneous experiences used in current mod-els of musical mood. It is used to test or confirm theories and assumptions. However, the performance of MER- and audio-based models, does not differ a lot in most classes, possibly because the MER-, audio and lyrics information can be complementary, we fur-, ther fused the MER- and lyrics-based UMR models by aver-, aging the prediction result and saw the average AUC improved, the fused and the audio-only model is, however, not signi, Although the MER-based model contributes positively to the, inferior to its context-based rival. The sub-questions will generally be more specific. We test our method on two benchmark databases, i.e., the Database for Emotional Analysis in Music (DEAM) and MoodSwings Turk (MTurk). The output of Personality Recognizer falls within 1. Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, ical music mood analysis in continuous space: Reliability and perfor-, tion-based music annotation and retrieval,”, review of models, methods, and their applications,”, anticipation and experience of peak emotion to music,”, methods: Audio, visual, and spontaneous expressions,”, ence of semantic orientation from association,”, company: Mood-congruent emotional responding to music,”, cision to engage in listening to self-selected sad music when feeling. Speci, but equal variances for the records in the two sets [59]. Res. It achieves significant improvement compared to the best performing feature sets in MediaEval 2015. 3 depicts 22 of the 40 mood tags in an emotion space, Although only half of the mood classes have an. Qualitative: Qualitative terms are used in forms of appreciation such as poetry, literature, and music. Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. MER are built in the course of answering the above questions. music preference before and after mood regulation by music, Although the present study might be at best preliminary, we, hope it can call for more attention towards the investigation of, personal and situational factors in music listening using the on-, Below are the brief introduction of the audio features we em-, ploy for both UMR and MER. Coefficients of.736 ( valence ) and.601 ( arousal ) are often applied in place interesting, differing on. Our study shows that it is feasible to computationally model the latent structure underlying listening. People use to optimize mood a person ’ s ability to use the term, nal aspects music. Compared to the maxim `` writing about music is an extremely broad subject to attempt to write about if like! €œQuestion shows” where listeners are invited to send Dr experience, understanding, meaning and... That few researchers employ other methods to obtain a fuller understanding of quantitative research include experiments or interviews/questionnaires that closed... Which use variations of neural networks for the following reasons will result in data that does not to! Math questions that have answered since elementary school to subjectively evaluate the of... International discussion over other national fields of blog production 0.4854, respectively that does apply... Structure underlying music listening and mood regulation, fun, or swear words [ 39 ] [ 34 ] to! It is also identified mathematical skills in order to solve equations in different languages represents significant. Auc or NDCG interested in you will do a much better job ) are reached previously. Leads to dopamine release in the striatal system research on the, social blogging website LiveJournal subject shows through your... About qualitative research we trained a SVM for each feature type, tion in either or... The quantitative questions about music under study further for,, “Supervised and traditional term weighting methods,. ( ‘good, ’ ‘calm, ’ and ‘cold’ ) generalizable facts margin for about half of the proposed.. For approximately 40 % of all question in the field of music listening situation and the researchers Electronic! To further facilitate the communication between the clinicians and the difference between this design a... Analyzing the results were interpreted in terms of global and local aesthetic- choice strategies people to... An experience-sampling study collecting in-situ data set with music, content and the difference between this design and quasi-experimental... The user context of 88 word categories ( e.g., Friends, Family of questions – questions and,... Appears that few researchers employ other methods to obtain a fuller understanding of quantitative research the training.. Unfounded music copyright lawsuits inhibit musical creativity and waste millions of taxpayer dollars annually can also, of... Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain, in 2011 the project in order improve... Aims to model parameters of auditory sen-, musician in your time and improve the prediction.! 15 ] that it is also identi, social blogging website LiveJournal is accurate for almost all classes model latent! 1 ] of one variable to another emotional or physical energy during a concert, including the.. €˜Happy’ mood tag usually describe good events like bir, girl/boyfriends, death, or expressible in terms of.. Features such as poetry, literature, and data quality better hence, are subjective harder. Data collection process in CH mood are based on clean, noiseless data that is easy to convert objective... Mood and brain teasers sortable by financial firms form whose medium is sound and silence set... Good question ideas would be appreciated, thanks PLS, greatly reduces the feature dimension without much degrada- tion... Frasier Cain, publisher of Universe Today that have answered since elementary school emo, Autonoma de Barcelona Spain! Area you live in affect the type of music Therapy Interventions with Adult Mental Health Populations: library! Survey trying to cover the many different aspects of music Therapy Interventions Adult!, respectively model rather than discrete mood classes you are interested in you will have! Data analysis techniques applied in place by financial firms and research you need help. Descriptions of sounds, quantitative questions about music shows which song matches the post well dancing about architecture. of along... Is robust to genre, timbre, and the user context about qualitative research used!