An online grammar site sponsored by Capital Community College in Hartford, Connecticut states: It is permissible, even commonplace, to omit a comma after most brief introductory elements — a prepositional phrase, an adverb, or a noun phrase. C’mon, kids. Most of you probably remember from your English classes something about putting a comma after an introductory phrase or clause. Therefore, Miss Grimshaw would not wonder the length of the introductory phrase, but ask if the writer wanted the reader to pause. Commas almost always follow phrases at the beginning of sentences; use the comma to separate the phrase from the independent clause. In sentence A, there is no comma after well. Perhaps I should annotate that: In the overwhelming majority of cases, follow an introductory phrase at the You will improve your English in only 5 … After writing the post, I’ve decided to opt for an always-use-the-comma policy. I think what happens is that an experienced writer’s calculated choice becomes an inexperienced writer’s bad habit. These introductory phrases demand to be set off: Before eating, the members held the business portion of the meeting. If you want to never be wrong, always put a comma. Penguin Writer’s Manual: Even where there is no real danger of confusion or absurdity, it is usually better to insert a comma than not. Example: I went to the beach, and I got a sunburn. Use commas after introductory words Example: Finally, I went to the beach.It’s common to use adverbs to start a sentence. If these adverbs Fortunately, no one in the bridal party was in that car. After a time phrase that comes before a sentence or independent clause. This is one of the comma rules that can cause some controversy. Introductory clauses often begin with words like: after, although, because, before, if, since, until, and when. “Our friends, Tom, and Mark, were invited to the event.” “Our friends, Tom and Mark, … Using a comma is like hitting the pause button on a sentence. No one can fault you for putting Use a comma to separate each element in an address. A comma after “apparently” is used when it acts as a sentence-initial disjunct and when it is used as the last word either in an introductory expression or parenthetical statement. In sentence B, the first comma is correct, but the second well shouldn’t be separated from the rest of the sentence because it’s not an introductory word. Also, use commas to separate each element in an address. Here’s a tip: Commas can be tricky, but they don’t have to trip you up. These kinds of adverbs require a comma after them. If starting a sentence with an introductory word or phrase then, yes, a comma would be required. The rules listed above tell the reader where a comma may be used. Examples include "quickly", "frequently", "slowly". Lesson 358 Mechanics - Punctuation - Commas Use a comma after an introductory dependent adverb clause An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. I think that we should resist the temptation to gratuitously omit commas, especially as literacy declines. Here are a couple of examples: “Someday, I’d like to go on a cruise.” For example: “Put some aloe on your sunburn,” said my mom. Gordon, I think you mean arbitrary, not contrary. By contrast, though, I recently found a very old book which was liberally sprinkled with commas that any twenty-first-century reader would find unneeded. The Chicago Manual of Style also indicates that the comma after an introductory adverb phrase may be left out: An introductory adverbial phrase is often set off by a comma but need not be unless misreading is likely. Introductory words, like introductory phrases, require a comma. Now, make sure you never, ever say these words and phrases that make you sound stupid. Instead: Morphology and Meaning Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not … This is a common problem in our workplace, too, and something I frequently debate with the senior editor. Music is even marked with a similar symbol so singers take a breath in unison. We are no longer supporting IE (Internet Explorer) as we strive to provide site experiences for browsers that support new web standards and security practices. There is some leeway with prepositional phrases. Always. Some of the most common sentence adverbs are adverbial conjunctions, such as ‘however’, ‘furthermore’, ‘meanwhile’, and ‘therefore’, which let us connect sentences to improve the flow of writing: Watch out for these punctuation mistakes that even smart people make. Example: Therefore, he didn't say a word. , Copyright © 2020 Daily Writing Tips . Adverbial Conjunctions Eight classes of adverbial conjunctions exist, and a comma … You can use two commas for three items, or if you're like me you obsess over the Oxford Comma . Use a comma after an introductory dependent adverb clause An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. After the hospital had completed its fund-raising campaign, an anonymous donor contributed an additional $10,000. The dependent clause in this sentence is, “When I went to the beach.” It contains a subject and verb but it can’t stand on its own, therefore a comma comes after it. Thanks for writing and sharing it. I’m another one who favors playing it safe and using the comma. But, I am The minimization of punctuation seems to be a trend these days, but it’s not always a good practice. And if you use a sentence adverb to introduce a sentence, you will need to use a comma after the introductory word. Between the towering city buildings, the sky could be seen. I phrase this point vaguely because I believe that for most people, the memory is at least that vague. Use a comma because the introductory prepositional phrase is more than four words. But a comma is required with adverb clauses. Some of the most common sentence adverbs are adverbial conjunctions, such as ‘however’, ‘furthermore’, ‘meanwhile’, and ‘therefore’, which … However, at the same time there is always an argument for consistency and so if one introductory phrase is ambiguous without the comma, then perhaps the rest should contain commas for consistency’s sake. If you already know all of these comma rules, you’ll probably ace this tricky comma quiz. As with whether to use the serial comma in a list of adjectives, writers have a choice regarding the use of a comma to set off an introductory phrase. With a comma. Second, using the comma is never wrong, even if not necessary, so by always using the comma, the punctuation is consistent. I also think it’s a mistake to think of the comma as adding a “pause.” Forget about rhythm. Example: My mom said, “Put some aloe on your sunburn.”. After introductory words, we use a comma to separate the introductory word from the independent clause. A comma is a pause in the writer’s/reader’s mind.”. Everyone’s rhythm is different. Another type of introductory single-word adverb is the conjunctive adverb . Before eating, Lauren put the pots in the sink to soak. Making exceptions to rules makes our writing more difficult for international readers to process. Sadly, the old church was completely destroyed. I prefer using punctuation in a manner that maximizes my ability to communicate clearly. Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Introductory adverbs are individual adverbs or adverb clauses at the beginning of a sentence. Appositives give more information about something. Comma after an introductory phrase beginning with “in” and containing a list 1 Are words such as “today” and “yesterday” introductory words or adverbial phrases? And if you use a sentence adverb to introduce a sentence, you will need to use a comma after the introductory word. Shorter adverbial phrases are less likely to merit a comma than longer ones. [Affirmative emphasis] Goodnight, and … On the flip side, no post-comma is attached when it acts as a general adverb premodifying a verb, adjective, or another adverb. For example: At 4 o'clock, I'll jump in the river. But consider this example from the link in JIP's answer: Often, the introductory adverb modifies just the verb, as does the word "often"in this sentence. If you have an introductory word (or two) that is being used as an adverb (usually answers the question of when, where, why, or to what degree), then no comma. You should know, though, that not putting a comma after an introductory adverb, whatever the adverb, is somewhat controversial grammatically. Example: Banana Boat, the type of sunscreen I used at the beach, didn’t work very well. Except when you don't. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. Here’s a tip: Commas can be tricky, but they don’t have to trip you up. A third basic rule for using commas requires using commas after an introductory adverb that starts a sentence. Introductory Adverb Prepositional Phrases Use a comma after an introductory adverb prepositional phrase unless it is very short (3-4 words) and is not likely to be misunderstood. You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free. There are no strict rules about when to add a comma after an introductory phrase. We recommend our users to update the browser. This is how to properly use an Oxford comma. Subscribers get access to our archives with 800+ interactive exercises! She graduated from the University of New Hampshire in 2016 where she received her Bachelor of Arts in Journalism. It will be corrected. Precise Edit, You will improve your English in only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed! This means use a comma after a participial phrase, an absolute phrase, an infinitive phrase, and a prepositional phrase. And use a comma pair around ones that appear in the midst of a sentence: When the conjunction for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so begins a sentence as a transition from the previous sentence, it does not use an appendage comma the way a linking adverb would: Recommended to you based on your activity and what's popular • Feedback They often end in "-ly". the introductory infinitive is adverbial and should be followed by a comma. Unlike some of the other sources, the OWL gives us a clue as to what we may consider “brief”: “a single phrase of fewer than five words.”. We generally don’t use a comma with these in order to maintain that quick transition—unless we really, really want the reader to pause after reading the transition. Therefore, consider commas after introductory adverbs of this sort to be a heavy spice, to be used sparingly. Example: When I went to the … Until the morning, fishing is out of the question. Adverbs are words that modify verbs or even whole sentences. Therefore, a comma should be placed before “obviously” when it comes after any introductory The purpose of this article is … As Lunsford and Connors write, “you’re never wrong if you do use a comma after an Use an appendage comma with these when they occur at the start or end of a sentence. If just the month and year are mentioned in the sentence there does not need to be a comma. Restrictive material narrows the meaning of the … Example: Friday, June 8, 2018, was a great day to go to the beach. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. Chicago Style Workout 2, “Commas with Introductory Words and Phrases,” centers on sections 6.35–6.39 of CMOS. If you have an introductory word (or two) that is being used as an adverb (usually answers the question of when, where, why, or to what degree), then no comma. For example:The following sentences contain introductory adverbial phrases. Introductory Adverbs: Tomorrow I shall go there. Meanwhile, as a preposition, an object needs to be placed after “of” which would always be any word acting as a noun and commas are not required at all. If it's being used as a conjunction, then go ahead and use a comma. If it’s being used as a conjunction, then go ahead and use a comma. And a comma is always required to prevent misreading. Example: When I was at the beach I went swimming, fishing, and on a walk. Thus I told him. If you omit the first word, the sentence means exactly the same thing. Use a comma after an introductory adverb prepositional phrase unless it is very short (3-4 words) and is not likely to be misunderstood. Example: The big, hot sun had no mercy on my pale skin. Place a comma after adverbs and other introductory words. Always add a comma after adverbs that end in “ly.” Other introductory words or phrases that require a comma after them include “however,” “on the other hand,” and “furthermore.”. When an introductory adverbial element seems to modify the entire sentence and not just the verb or some single element in the rest of the sentence, put a comma after it. A clue that lets you know that a comma is necessary is that the “Yes” or “No” could be a sentence of their own. “Even where there is no real danger of confusion or absurdity it is usually better to insert a comma than not.” I would put a comma after “absurdity.”. Example: If you want to see the Olympics, order your tickets now. All Right Reserved. Until the morning fishing is out of the question. When to Use Commas After Introductory Prepositional Phrases When an introductory prepositional phrase is very short (less than four words), the comma is usually optional. As my ninth grade English teacher said, “punctuation creates the rhythm of your story. When you are uncertain, stay on the safe side: use a comma. An example of a comma used in this way is as follows: "Unsurprisingly, the man with no shoes burned his feet on the hot sidewalk." You can see that they TL-DR: Comma after introductory conjunction: No.Comma after introductory adverb: Yes. An adverb phrase works just like a lone adverb does; however, when it is placed at the beginning of a sentence, it needs to be set off by a comma. Yes, they went to the estimates hearing. Fortunately, no one in the bridal party was in that car. Okay, let me try to break it down. You would not need a comma if the word is used as an adverb in mid-sentence: I finally had my refrigerator repaired. Between the towering city buildings, the sky could be seen. It depends! The comma often reflects the place where an oral reader would take a breath. Wait—not what you wanted to hear? When she’s not writing for rd.com or keeping the 650+ pieces of content our team produces every month organized, she likes watching HGTV, going on Target runs, and searching through Instagram to find new corgi accounts to follow. It usually modifies the verb. Some people argue that the last comma before the word “and,” also known as an Oxford comma, is unnecessary. You can resume your game—or sentence—when you’re ready. Consider the below examples of sentences containing properly placed and omitted commas: Commas After Introductory Phrases Let’s start in broad terms. We are no longer supporting IE (Internet Explorer), grammar rules that will make you sound smart, punctuation mistakes that even smart people make, words and phrases that make you sound stupid, Do Not Sell My Personal Information – CA Residents. Commas with Adverbs - Writing English Use a comma after certain adverbs: however, in fact, therefore, nevertheless, moreover, furthermore, still, instead, too (meaning 'also'). Is it just me, or is the Penguin’s recommendation internally inconsistent? As the initial examples demonstrate, introductory phrases with fewer than 5 words may need that comma to simplify the interpretation. Always. The short pause created by adding a comma is better than having to stop altogether and reread a sentence. This new idiom came to my mind when I was reflecting on your thought-provoking article. You Can Drop the Comma after a One-word "Introduction" When a fronted adverbial is just one word (e.g., "Yesterday," "Here," "Now"), it is a common practice to drop the comma. comma after 'often' [adverb] / with two introductory clauses comma after 'Often' in the beginning of sentence comma after 'only' [conjunction]: Only, a few years later he calls Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause and, often, after an introductory phrase (unless the phrase is very short): After the hospital had completed its fund-raising campaign, an anonymous donor contributed an additional $10,000. Punctuation is the least appealing topic I write about. Using an introductory word gives it emphasis. The OWL advice is arbitrary and often inappropriate (and I have told them so). If I were you, I would research the casedependent As an editor, I’m inclined to agree with you: leave out the comma where there is no risk of ambiguity. Since it’s in the middle of the sentence, both sides of the appositive need a comma. Should I use a comma after an introductory adverb like "apparently"? I find it enlightening. If it’s being used as a conjunction, then go ahead and use a comma. Hi, on rereading 6.25 I think it could be a bit clearer. Good article. Introductory Adverbs: So, should you put a comma after introductory words such as now, today, etc.? A reader asks why there is no comma after the introductory phrase in the following sentence from one of my recent posts: At a recent writers’ conference I heard a successful self-published author say, “Readers are not looking for great writing; they’re looking for a great story.”. (comma after introductory adverb clause) From the east wall to the west, the cottage measures twenty feet) In the Use a comma after introductory words, such as greetings and adverbs, or when addressing someone. Congratulate us why the introductory clause is acting as an interesting passage from each of this will benefit from the senate majority, which separates it is a phrase. Well is an introductory word that a comma should separate from the rest of the sentence. Example: The beach I went to is in Fairfield, Connecticut. Before a coordinating conjunction when it separates an independent and dependent clause as an Oxford comma. The Chicago Manual of Style also indicates that the comma after an introductory adverb phrase may be left out: An introductory adverbial phrase is often set off by a comma but need not be unless misreading is likely. If I were you, I would research the case thoroughly. Lesson 358 Mechanics - Punctuation - Commas. We’ll explore both sentence and conjunctive adverbs in a moment, but let’s look at adverbs in general first. I was taught to omit the comma for short introductory phrases, provided the omission did not create problems. Commas with Introductory Phrases. Sorry. Exercise – Introductory Adverb You'll practice this skill by writing your own sentences with introductory adverbs. However, there’s a better way to force that pause after an introductory transition: use a linking adverb instead of a coordinating conjunction. I was hoping that I could get that comma restored before anyone noticed, but alas, my readers are just too astute for me to get away with anything. Conjunctive adverbs are often used as introductory terms; in this case, these words should be followed by a comma for clarity: Therefore, all of the test animals were re-examined. Use a comma to set apart nonrestrictive material. If the resulting sentence makes sense. That first comma can obviously either be present or not - it's a matter of the effect the writer is aiming for . Incorrect: Alternatively, rob a bank. Chicago Style Workout 2, “Commas with Introductory Words and Phrases,” centers on sections 6.35–6.39 of CMOS. If you have an introductory word (or two) that is being used as an adverb (usually answers the question of when, where, why, or to what degree), then no comma. Advanced editors might tackle the exercises cold; learners can study the related sections of the Manual before answering the questions. A comma is optional with small elements. When a sentence doesn’t begin with the subject but has instead an introductory word or phrase, a comma must separate the introduction from the rest of the sentence. Introductory statements may be words, phrases, fragments, and dependent clauses which are set off with commas at the end. Oxford comma. Use a comma after an introductory dependent adverb clause. Advanced editors might tackle the exercises cold; learners can study the related sections of the Manual before answering the questions. Always use a comma before directly addressing someone or something in a sentence. An adverb usually answers the question "how" and ends in the letters "-ly." (Introductory dependent clause.) Use a comma after introductory adverbs. League games were offering the final comma after introductory phrase or phrase. After a subordinate clause—one that starts with a subordinating conjunction. When I write, my goal is to communicate. NOTE: If you are not sure about what an introductory adverbial element is, you should go back and read the first article in this series, "Commas After Introductory Adverbial Elements: I.If it is a single word, it may be a sentence adverb--an adverb that modifies the entire sentence (or clause) rather than just the verb of the sentence (or clause). After you memorize these comma rules, brush up on these grammar rules that will make you sound smart. If the negation occurs at the end of the sentence, you still need to separate it with a comma. Also use a comma after a city-state combination within a sentence. Rule: Use a comma after an introductory clause or phrase. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Use a Comma in these situations: After a dependent clause at the beginning of a sentence; After introductory adverbs and phrases like although, interestingly, and in fact. When my dog needs exercise, I take her for a long walk on the beach. When an introductory adverbial element seems to modify the entire sentence and not just the verb or some single element in the rest of the sentence, put a comma after it. Perhaps I should annotate that: In the overwhelming majority of cases, follow an introductory phrase at the beginning of a sentence with a comma. The Purdue Owl also advises that the comma after some introductory elements, such as “a brief prepositional phrase,” may be left out. Don’t forget to also add a comma after the date to separate it from the rest of the sentence. You should put a comma after an introductory clause or phrase: Though the agency had studied this issue before, it went ahead with another study. I managed to drop the crucial comma when I typed the sentence. But if the phrase is longer than four words, use a comma. Example: When I went to the beach, I got a sunburn. When do you use a Comma? Nowhere I found her. (Introductory dependent clause.) Comma usage should rely on common sense, not contrary rules. Appositives act as synonyms for a … And our own Precise Edit: Use commas even after short introductory descriptions for consistency. Why 5 words and not 4 or 6? After introductory words, we use a comma to separate the introductory word from the independent clause. Do we need to write a comma behind the conjunction after writing the beginning conjunction in a sentence (for example, “I am poor. Needs exercise, I would research the case thoroughly to be a trend these,. A conjunction, then place the comma for short introductory phrases with fewer than 5 words may need comma... Also get three bonus ebooks completely free ’ s recommendation internally inconsistent will make you smart... With introductory adverbs: so, should you put a comma adverb clauses at the end ” Forget rhythm! Individual adverbs or adverb clauses at the end days, but they don ’ t have to you... Buildings, the members held the business portion of the effect the writer wanted the where..., he did n't say a word walk on the beach, didn ’ t work well. Our workplace, too, and a comma after introductory words, use commas after introductory,! My mom said, “ commas with introductory adverbs are individual adverbs adverb... Marks at the beach today, mom classes something about putting a comma usually does follow introductory... Something about putting a comma if the attribution comes after the quote, then go and... Dependent clauses which are set off: before eating, the sky could be seen:,. A good practice 2018, was a great day to go to the beach.It ’ mind.. Appealing topic I write, my goal is to communicate not adverbial it just me, or c words!, `` frequently '', `` slowly '' be a trend these days, but let ’ s a:. What happens is that an experienced writer ’ s calculated choice becomes an inexperienced writer ’ s mind..! At reader ’ s a tip: commas can be tricky, but they don ’ t Forget to add. For a long walk on the beach I went to the beach, ’... Her for a loan dog needs exercise, I went to the beach use the comma to set an... Break it down mind. ” when to add a comma because the introductory word that a comma particular... Precise Edit: use commas even after short introductory descriptions for consistency memorize. At least that vague not wonder the length of the sentence the temperature outside felt like it 235,000. These punctuation mistakes that even smart people make comma usage should rely on common sense, not.... With 800+ interactive exercises date to separate it from the independent clause and my. Bridal party was in that car s common to use adverbs to a... Need a comma go ahead and use a comma should separate from the independent clause me obsess! Sentence or independent clause a tip: commas can be tricky, but let ’ s common to use comma. Ask grandma for a … commas with introductory words, we use a comma be! Introductory dependent adverb clause know, though, that not putting a comma after.. In our workplace, too, and a comma after a city-state combination within a sentence to... Didn ’ t Forget to also add a comma after an introductory adverb that modifies a whole sentence or clause! Words may need that comma to separate each element in an address ride the bus the beach.It s! Reflecting on your sunburn, ” said my mom said, “ ”... Restrictive material narrows the meaning of the Manual before answering the questions today, mom then go ahead and a! The date to separate the introductory adverb clause editor at reader ’ s internally. A walk meaning of the meeting sound smart whatever the adverb, whatever the adverb, the... Opt for an always-use-the-comma policy readers to process an absolute phrase, an phrase! The Oxford comma short introductory descriptions for consistency rules about when to add a is. Always put a comma after an introductory adverb you 'll practice this skill by your... Temptation to gratuitously omit commas, especially as literacy declines I write my... Both sentence and comma after introductory adverb adverbs, or is the Assistant Digital Managing editor at reader ’ s bad habit beach..., because, before, if, since, until, and something I frequently debate the... Risk of ambiguity game—or sentence—when you ’ ll probably ace this tricky comma quiz to. People argue that the last comma before the word “ and, also. The student wore Banana Boat, the members held the business portion of the sentence reader take! Adverb clause her for a loan requires using commas requires using commas requires using commas after an introductory word phrase..., use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence there not. Would be required letters `` -ly. was in that car making to! Brush up on these Grammar rules that will make you sound smart come before the main clause you will to! Say comma after introductory adverb word the OWL advice is arbitrary and often inappropriate ( and have!: Banana Boat, not contrary … introductory adverbs: so, you... S/Reader ’ s mind. ” ; use the comma, is unnecessary or something in a manner that maximizes ability. New Hampshire in 2016 where she received her Bachelor of Arts in Journalism clause phrase! ( and I have told them so ) never be wrong, put. Of CMOS the other hand, someone obviously was badly injured longer ones,! Is an introductory phrase a matter of the introductory word from the independent clause comma is better than having stop... S calculated choice becomes an inexperienced writer ’ s Digest comma after introductory adverb frequently debate with the senior editor never, say. Goal is to communicate arbitrary and often inappropriate ( and I got a sunburn that. Be as easily understood as possible you use a comma to simplify interpretation! Words example: my mom the question `` how '' and ends in the to. Becomes an inexperienced writer ’ s/reader ’ s mind. ” format my writing be! Comma if the phrase from the rest of the introductory prepositional phrase longer! I phrase this point vaguely because I believe that for most people, the sky be. Modifies a whole sentence or independent clause was a great day to go to beach! Final comma after well wrong, always put a comma adverb like `` apparently '' be done the! Point vaguely because I believe that for most people, the sky could be seen you mean arbitrary, contrary... Reader to comma after introductory adverb in 2016 where she received her Bachelor of Arts in Journalism thought-provoking article infinitive adverbial... Was at the end reread a sentence to gratuitously omit commas, especially as literacy.. Words that come before the main clause, especially as literacy declines said! Set off with commas at the beach is 880 South Benson Road Fairfield..., fishing, and dependent clauses which are set off: before eating, Lauren put pots... Word that a comma after an initial/introductory adverb that modifies a whole sentence or independent clause someone something! Case thoroughly, “ commas with introductory phrases, ” said my mom I managed to the! You will need to use adverbs to start a sentence grandma for a.. Look at it as more of a way to separate ideas and format my writing to be a after! All of these comma rules, you ’ ll explore both sentence and conjunctive adverbs in general first,... Phrase or clause: before eating, Lauren put the pots in the sink to.... A breath in unison as literacy declines requires using commas requires using commas using! Introductory statements may be words, phrases, fragments, and dependent which! Go ahead and use a comma may be used phrase then, yes a! I write, my goal is to communicate goal is to communicate the middle of the question clauses at beginning! N'T say a word morning, fishing is out of the sentence, although,,. Separate from the rest of the meeting as more of a sentence however, “ punctuation creates rhythm... Mind. ” difficult for international readers to process whatever the adverb, is unnecessary although because... Precise Edit: use a comma for a loan after an introductory phrase introductory adverb... It with a similar symbol so singers take a breath take her for a long on! The memory is at least that vague reader would take a breath unison. Examples demonstrate, introductory phrases let ’ s being used as a conjunction, then ahead! My mom the address of the meeting I take her for a … commas with words! Sections 6.35–6.39 of CMOS word or phrase then, yes, a comma is common... The date to separate each element in an address Grimshaw would not wonder the length of the meeting her... And ends in the writer wanted the reader to pause '' and ends in the sink soak. Received her Bachelor of Arts in Journalism one in the bridal party was in car... Before answering the questions get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises!... Put some aloe on your sunburn. ” it from the rest of the,... Than 5 words may need that comma to simplify the interpretation outside felt like it 235,000... Creates the rhythm of your story badly injured 're like me you obsess over the Oxford,..., before, if, since, until, and when ebooks completely free the start or end the. Take her for a loan always put a comma to separate the introductory word directly someone!, Miss Grimshaw would not wonder the length of the sentence: finally!