All three recordings exhibit the beauty and passion that can flower when top artists meet to exchange musical ideas and inspiration. Along the way they have produced some outstanding music, broken down long-standing cultural and historical barriers and Arabic felag mangu, meaning “fugitive peasant” and derived from a root meaning “to flee.” The term came into use in the 14th century, and was first applied to While the specific origins of flamenco are lost to history, it is clear that there are Arab influences, especially in the style performed in the Gypsy caves in Granada. This article appeared on pages 32-35 of the November/December 1994 print edition of Saudi Aramco World. Sinewy flamenco guitar lines weave between the plaintive tones of the kamanjeh, a kind of Moroccan violin, underpinned by the frenetic clatter of castanets and a bedrock of darabukkahs, or Arab hand drums. The search for the sources of flamenco, and the rise of Andalucismo, bore fruit in the 1980’s and 1990’s with a series of stunning musical collaborations Carefully choreographed flamenco "spectacles" also narrowed the opportunity for improvised musical solos and dancing, leading some aficionados to charge that flamenco, as an art form, was stagnant. Carefully choreographed flamenco “spectacles” also narrowed the opportunity for improvised musical solos and dancing, leading some aficionados to charge that realms were the scene of vibrant cultural exchange and artistic cross-pollination. flamenco, as an art form, was stagnant. In reaction, many turned to the gitano tradition. The canas, jaleo, polos, and tiranas of the flamenco; the zarabanda danced in Spain during the 16th century; the zorongo dance with its Andalusian music; the jota from the Arabic khata (to step); the sequidillas; the fandango; the folias; the sevillanas; and the bulerias, all have been influenced to some extent by the music, song and dance of the Moors. The evolution of zejels and jarchas are an indisputable mixture of musical cultures given to a micro-composition model (following verses) and strophic (groups of text) flamenco. The artform’s basic building blocs – sung poetry and music – were borrowed from the Arabs and Berbers who ruled al-Andalus from 711 to 4192, when the Moors were expelled from Spain. powerful work with the Orquesta Andalusi de Tanger. respectively. Along the way they have produced some outstanding music, broken down long-standing cultural and historical barriers and demonstrated—in an era where some see only a "clash of civilizations" between Islam and the West—that there is room for cooperation and creativity. Indeed, cultural historian Lois Lamya' al-Faruqi found few elements of flamenco untouched by Arab music. Over time, however, a split developed between “classical” flamenco and the folk gitano style. Most of the Spanish participants are individual performers, including some of the most prominent singers and guitarists working in the gitano style. Other performers have turned inward, searching for the obscure origins of flamenco, in hope of inspiration. For their selections, the artists have drawn on both the flamenco and Andalusi repertoires, and play cantes flamencos and traditional Maghribi folk songs with equal dexterity. Though some scholars believe the word flamenco means "Flemish," others think it is a corruption of the colloquial Arabic felag mangu, meaning "fugitive peasant" and derived from a root meaning "to flee." The Arab roots of flamenco run deep. The two groups have set Arabic and Catalonian poetry from the 11th to 13th centuries to the rhythms, melodies and instruments of the western Mediterranean to produce appealing and inventive music. https://bilingua.io/a-deep-look-into-arabic-influence-on-spanish Flamenco derived much of its meaning and methods from its source in Andalusian music and, over time, other musical styles and influences. While much of this cross-cultural exploration has been done in informal sessions or live performances, several flamenco-Andalusi recordings have been produced. Irving notes in his book The World of Islam, "Gypsy music and cante jondo go back to the zajal [sung Arabic lyric poetry] and the five-tone scale." throughout gitano performance, usually in introductory or transitional passages, and come from the traditional refrains of blind Arab mendicants, “Ya ‘ain!” (O Irving notes in his book The World of Islam, “Gypsy music and cante jondo go back to the zajal [sung Arabic lyric poetry] and Arabic Maqam / Turkish Makam and Influences on Flamenco. It was during this period that the term flamenco came to be applied to the gitanos' music, and the rules and forms of the classical flamenco tradition were established. expelled from Spain. drums. hand-clapping. Couldn't point out any significant similarities! Al Andalusi - A production by Flamenco Borealis exploring the connection and the relationship of the music and dance between Arabic (mwashahat) and Flamenco and “Ya lail!” (“O night!”) respectively. Catalan also has some words that were of Arabic origin, but the Spanish language has more. We believe...that a place must be found for this mode of expression, particularly since we're subjected to a veritable invasion by other aesthetics and sensibilities.". Arabic influence in the region did not end with language. Many songs that later became important in Spanish music and For example, the vocalizations "Ay-ay-ay!" Flamenco was born in these marches where Arabs, Jews, Christians and gitanos mixed freely. Their style included fiery guitar improvisation, jaleo—complex rhythmic hand-clapping, guitar-slapping, finger-snapping and vocal outbursts—and the tradition of duende, the deep emotional participation of the performer. of slow but steady decline, while the Catholic powers of central and northern Spain steadily pushed south. Attempts at musical "fusion" often result in mere cacophony, but the roots common to flamenco and Andalusi music—and the abilities of the musicians involved—have allowed these Hispano-Arab crossover efforts to attain majestic heights. It houses a museum of Arab … The percussive elements of jaleo are still found in the folk music of North Africa and its reliance on drums, tambourines and hand-clapping. As flamenco artists and critics began to explore the elements of gitano performance, they rediscovered the rich Arab influence in flamenco. Flamenco emerged in the early nineteenth century in Andalusia. expressed the passion that is central to flamenco. The two groups have set Arabic and Catalonian poetry from the 11th to 13th centuries to the rhythms, melodies and instruments of the western Mediterranean to produce appealing and inventive music. and "Ya tail!" What they have found are pervasive Arab influences, touching everything from the style of performance to the very rhythms and scales of the songs themselves. Vincent Torrent of Al Tall declares, "There is a special kind of Mediterranean sensibility and aesthetics. In reaction, many turned to the gitano tradition. Other performers have turned inward, searching for the obscure origins of flamenco, in hope of inspiration. While much of this cross-cultural exploration has been done in informal sessions or live performances, several flamenco-Andalusi recordings have been (There, the Roma people are called Gitanos.) The roots of flamenco are not known, but it is believed that Gypsies were primarily responsible for developing and popularizing the style. “little” musical traditions. The Moroccans are mostly musical groups, principally the orquestas andalusi of northern Morocco. The art form's basic building blocks—sung poetry and music—were borrowed from the Arabs and Berbers who ruled al-Andalus from 711 to 1492, when the Moors were expelled from Spain. The search for the sources of flamenco, and the rise of andalucismo, bore fruit in the 1980's and 1990's with a series of stunning musical collaborations between Spanish and Moroccan artists. Though some scholars believe the word flamenco means "Flemish," others think it is a corruption of the colloquial Arabic felag mangu, meaning "fugitive peasant" and derived from a root meaning "to flee." He too invited scholars from abroad to his court and established schools. Flamenco music was born, and still lives, among the scenic green hills of Andalusia in southern Spain. ("O eye!") Among the best are the collaborations of José Heredia Maya and Enrique Morente with the Orquesta Andalusi de Tetouan and Juan Peña El Lebrijano's powerful work with the Orquesta Andalusi de Tanger. Flamenco, form of song, dance, and instrumental (mostly guitar) music commonly associated with the Andalusian Roma (Gypsies) of southern Spain. "Previously, southern Spain had turned its back on North Africa," according to Khalid Duran of the Free University of Berlin. There is much Arab influence in flamenco. a variety of new styles into their work. Indeed, cultural historian Lois Lamya’ al-Faruqi found few elements of flamenco untouched by Arab music. The Moorish influence in Spain dates back to a period before it was one country under the name of Spain. It was during this period that the term flamenco came to be applied to the gitanos' music, and the rules and forms of the classical flamenco tradition were established. Looser, less polished and more open to change than their classical flamenco counterparts, gitano artists expressed the passion that is central to flamenco. Between 800 and 900 A.D., a large exodus of people occurred from the Punjabi region of India. The roots of flamenco, though somewhat mysterious, seem to lie in the Roma migration from Rajasthan (in northwest India) to Spain between the 9th and 14th centuries. The once-mighty Muslim kingdoms of al-Andalus were in a state While Andalusi orchestras Nov. 2, 2020. It is hard to disect Spanish culture and determine which part is from whom. The cante flamenco, or "flamenco song," is characterized by lyric vocals, improvised dance and strongly rhythmic accompaniment. And what they have produced as a result is a fusion of Spanish and Arab traditions that is both interesting and inspirational. Although lighter forms The cantes originally featured purely rhythmic instruments or were sung a cappella, but the guitar came to be the principal flamenco instrument during the 19th century, when gitanos began to sing and dance professionally in cafés and bodegas. The cante flamenco, or “flamenco song,” is characterized by lyric vocals, improvised dance and strongly rhythmic accompaniment. Torrent of Al Tall declares, “There is a special kind of Mediterranean sensibility and aesthetics. are found throughout gitano performance, usually in introductory or transitional passages, and come from the traditional refrains of blind Arab mendicants, "Ya 'ain!" The borderlands between the Muslim and Christian realms were the scene of vibrant cultural exchange and artistic cross-pollination. Like flamenco, Andalusi music has both classical and folk traditions. Carefully choreographed flamenco "spectacles" also narrowed the opportunity for improvised musical solos and dancing, leading some aficionados to charge that flamenco, as an art form, was stagnant. In fact, the culture of the Spain was also influenced, as the Moors introduced several cultural i… guitarists working in the gitano style. both the flamenco and Andalusi repertoires, and play cantes flamencos and traditional Maghribi folk songs with equal dexterity. ("O night!") Since that time, Spaniards have come to a new appreciation of al-Andalus and of Arab and Islamic culture. traditions. Hispano-Arab musical collaborations are both an attempt to revivify existing art forms and a reassertion of Andalusian-Arab-Mediterranean traditions. Anyone who attends a wedding or spends an … "The ornamental melodic style, the improvisatory rhythmic freedom, the sometimes 'strange' (to Western ears) intervals, the segmental structure, and the repeated excursions from and returns to a tonal center are some of the features that indicate Arab influence on cante flamenco," according to al-Faruqi. While much ground remains to be covered within the Arabo-flamenco tradition, some folk musicians are striking out on a different tack. characterized by the nawba, a suite of music in a single melodic mode which grows progressively faster and includes sung poems. classical flamenco to a true art from with their expressive virtuosity, but less gifted singers and guitarists often sacrificed emotion for technical precision. Paco de Lucia and Madrid's Ketama have garnered critical praise—and the wrath of purists—with their jazz-influenced recordings, while the Gipsy Kings have wedded pop to flamenco to win fans worldwide. Among the best are the collaborations of José Heredia Maya and Enrique Morente with the Orquesta Andalusi de Tetuan and Juan Peña El Lebrijano’s "Those few [Spaniards] who had an idea of the greatness of Islamic Spain liked to believe that it was due to some very special kind of noble Arab from somewhere in the East, perhaps Damascus. The once-mighty Muslim kingdoms of al-Andalus were in a state of slow but steady decline, while the Catholic powers of central and northern Spain steadily pushed south (See Aramco World, January-February 1993). The cante flamenco, or "flamenco song," is characterized by lyric vocals, improvised dance and strongly rhythmic accompaniment. The vocal conventions of flamenco can also be traced back to Arab precursors. The resulting Hispano-Arab music is extraordinary. The term came into use in the 14th century, and was first applied to the Andalusian Gypsies themselves, who were called either gitanos or flamencos. produced. Greg Noakes is the news editor of the Washington report on Middle East Affairs. are grounded in the classical nawbat, they also have been influenced heavily by Arab and Berber folk music, and often move easily between these “great” and What they have found are pervasive Arab influences, touching everything from the style of performance to the very rhythms and scales of the songs themselves. Moorish Influences on Spanish Language and Culture. ... Arabic and the Spanish language ... such as the guitar and flamenco. eye!) The search for the sources of flamenco, and the rise of andalucismo, bore fruit in the 1980's and 1990's with a series of stunning musical collaborations between Spanish and Moroccan artists. This developed from the music and dance of African slaves held by the Spanish in the New World. rhythms and scales of the songs themselves. Flamenco music dates back to the Middle Ages, a time of turmoil in the Iberian peninsula. Their style included fiery guitar improvisation, jaleo—complex rhythmic hand-clapping, guitar-slapping, finger-snapping and vocal outbursts—and the tradition of duende, the deep emotional participation of the performer. The Arab Contribution to Music of the Western World by Rabah Saoud. We believe…that a place must be found for this mode the plaintive tones of the kamanjeh, a kind of Moroccan violin, underpinned by the frenetic clatter of castanets and a bedrock of darabukkahas, or Arab hand Hispano-Arab musical collaborations are both an attempt to revivify existing art forms and a reassertion of Andalusian-Arab-Mediterranean traditions. music. these Hispano-Arab crossover efforts to attain majestic heights. What is Flamenco?, The Moorish influence is there, a North African thread, and the guitar is a descendant of the oud or Arabic lute, and there is also the huge, if not overwhelming influence of the Rom (Gypsies), who originated in … The vocal conventions of flamenco can also be traced back to Arab precursors. dance professionally in cafés and bodegas. These people are believed to be members of the Untouchables, a group within the Indian caste system comprised of animal traders and trainers, acrobats, dancers, musicians, palmists and metalworkers. Flamenco was born in these marches where Arabs, Jews, Christians and gitanos mixed freely. Moroccans [they believed] were nothing but uncouth tribals revolting against Spanish civilization." Sinewy flamenco guitars lines weave between Even though elements of Greek, Indian, Persian and other Oriental music have been absorbed by this fiery spectacle, the Arab influences have been the most profound. Though flamenco performers and Andalusi musicians began their collaboration as a way to explore their own artistic pasts, they also have charted a path to an exciting musical future. Vincent I went to a flamenco performance completely unaware of the history or of the Muslim connection (it was just one of those things that I wanted to do while I was in Spain, although it had nothing to do with my fellowship). Indeed, cultural historian Lois Lamya' al-Faruqi found few elements of flamenco untouched by Arab music. Along the way they have produced some outstanding music, broken down long-standing cultural and historical barriers and demonstrated—in an era where some see only a "clash of civilizations" between Islam and the West—that there is room for cooperation and creativity. demonstrated – in an era where some see only a “clash of civilizations” between Islam and the West – that there is room for cooperation and creativity. An Introduction to Flamenco Cante], World music news from the editors at World Music Central, Your Connection to traditional and contemporary World Music, including folk, roots, global music, ethno and crosscultural fusions, Allan Ngumuya’s new CD “I’ve got hope” released on Blue Orbit Records, Exquisite Pieces Rooted in Tradition on the Chapman Stick, Mikolajki Folkowe Festival, Free Online Polish Folk Concerts, MG ALBA Scots Trad Music Awards announces 2020 Hall of Fame Inductees, Impeccable Flute and Irresistible Brazilian Beats, New Book, Music Stories from the Cosmic Barrio. The influence of Muslims on the musical revival of Europe can be detected as early as the period of the Carolingian Empire. The influence of the New World Recent research has revealed a major influence of Sub-Saharan African music on flamenco's prehistory. Flamenco music was born, and still lives, among the scenic green hills of Andalusia in southern Spain. Like flamenco, Andalusi music had both classical and folk All rights reserved. The term came into use in the 14th century, and was first applied to the Andalusian Gypsies themselves, who were called either gitanos or flamencos. T.B. This article appeared on pages 32-35 of the November/December 1994 print edition of, Check the Public Affairs Digital Image Archive for. and "Ay-li-li!" The resulting Hispano-Arab music is extraordinary. All three recordings exhibit the beauty and passion that can flower when top artists meet to exchange musical ideas and inspiration. ("O eye!") Exploration of flamenco’s Arab ancestry was reinforced by the rise over the last six decades of andalucismo, or Andalusian cultural nationalism. The melodic style, the improvisatory rhythmic freedom, the ‘strange’ intervals, the segmental structure, and the repeated excursions from and returns to a tonal center are some of the features that indicate Arab influence on flamenco. As flamenco artists and critics began to explore the elements of gitano performance, they rediscovered the rich Arab influence in flamenco. ("O night!") The borderlands between the Muslim and Christian realms were the scene of vibrant cultural exchange and artistic cross-pollination. The Media Line Staff. Though flamenco performers and Andalusi musicians began their collaboration as a way to explore their own artistic pasts, they also have charted a path to